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what are neutrinos and how are they detected?

by:Newland     2019-10-25
Here we discuss how neutrinos are produced, why a mountain is needed, and so on.
What is neutrinos?
Protons, neutrons, and electrons are tiny particles that make up atoms.
Neutrinos are also tiny elementary particles, but they are not part of the atom.
This particle was also found in nature.
The mass of neutrinos is very small, there is no charge, only half of the spin.
Its interaction with other matter particles is very weak.
So faint that trillions of neutrinos fall on us every second and pass through our bodies unnoticed.
Neutrinos from the Sun (Solar neutrinos
There are other stars, cosmic light from outside the solar system, and the big bang from the origin of the universe.
They can also be produced in the lab.
Neutrinos are divided into three types: electron neutrinos, tau neutrinos and μ on neutrinos.
When they travel, they can change from one flavor to another.
This process, called neutrino oscillation, is an unusual quantum phenomenon.
Neutrino oscillation by Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and Super-
Kamiokande experiment in Japan.
They studied solar neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos and humans. made neutrinos. The India-
Based on the neutrino observatory (INO)
Study only atmospheric neutrinos
The energy of solar neutrinos is much lower than what the detector can detect.
Neutrino Project: is it produced in nature that the bogagershow does not clear the atmospheric neutrinos?
Atmospheric neutrinos are produced by cosmic rays composed of protons and heavy nuclei.
These particles collide with atmospheric molecules, such as nitrogen, producing pions and muons, which further decay to produce neutrinos.
Why does INO need this mountain?
The mountain consists of 1 km of solid rock that filters most of the charged particles out of cosmic rays.
The filtered device consists of a portion of cosmic ray protons and pions and almost all neutrinos.
Why must the experiment be carried out underground?
If the detector is placed on the surface of the mountain, it will receive billions of cosmic ray muons per hour and about 10 neutrino events per day.
Once placed inside the rock, it will detect only 300 muon events per hour, about 10 neutrinos events per day, and 3 of them will be the desired muon neutrino event.
How does the iron Heat Meter detect neutrinos?
ICAl consists of 150 layers of alternating iron plates and glass detectors called resistance plate chambers.
μ on neutrinos interact with iron to produce charged μ on.
This charge is collected by sensors in glass RPCs that generate a pulse measured by electronic devices.
By piecing together the pulses generated in a continuous glass plate, track the path followed by μ on.
This is used to infer the properties of neutrinos that cause pulses.
The size of the cave-the length of the cave is 130 m, 26 m wide and 35 m high.
The tunnel will be 7. 5 m X 7.
5 m cross section.
It\'s like a 2-
An inch hole made on a 10 feet wall.
The detector consists of three modules.
It is estimated that a module will be built each year after completion of civil construction, which can occupy up to 3-4 years.
When electrons were discovered a few years ago, some of the possible future applications of neutrino science had no foreseeable use.
Today, the world without electronic products is unimaginable.
Therefore, basic scientific research is needed to understand the properties of particles before they are applied.
The characteristic of the sun from the sun to our visible light is emitted from the surface of the sun.
It is also close to this time from the sun to our neutrinos, known as solar neutrinos, which are produced at the core of the sun.
So they gave us information about the interior of the sun.
Studying these neutrinos can help us understand what\'s going on inside the sun.
What is the universe made?
Astronomers, for example, can study light from distant stars to detect new planets.
Light is the visible part of the spectrum, and other parts are used for example in radio astronomy.
Again, if the nature of neutrinos is better understood, they can be used in astronomy to find out what the universe is made.
Exploring the Early Universe had little interaction with the material around them, so they traveled long distances without interruption.
Because they take time to cross these distances, they are actually uninterrupted for a long time.
The neutrinos we observed outside the river may come from a distant past.
These inviolate messengers can give us an idea of the origins of the universe and the early stages of the baby universe shortly after the Big Bang.
In addition to the direct future use of neutrinos, the technical application of detectors will also be used to study them.
For example, X-
X-ray machine, PET scan, MRI scan, etc.
All through the study of particle detectors.
Therefore, the INO detector may be used in medical imaging.
Fear and fact fear.
The study of neutrinos closed by radioactive leakage, Scientific American, June 5, 2014.
This makes people think (a)
Neutrinos cause radiation leakage; (b)
Radioactive waste is buried near the neutrino facility.
Fact: The radiation leak is not from the neutrino detector EXO-
200, but radioactive leakage from the underground nuclear waste repository.
The experiment has now resumed operation.
This radiation can drown out and destroy the faint neutrino signal.
This just shows that underground nuclear waste repositories cannot be built anywhere near the Neutrino Observatory. An unusual fear.
2: natural or artificial: natural neutrinos are harmless, and millions of neutrinos pass through us every moment.
But artificial neutrinos can produce radiation and cause disease.
Fact: Co-focusing is simply the beam of neutrinos traveling in parallel lines.
In scientific use, the so-called radiation is not harmful.
Even visible light is a form of radiation. An unusual fear.
3: Cherenkov radiation: some neutrino experiments use the Cherenkov radiation they emit when they pass through ice, water and even air to detect them.
The radiation from Cherenkov is only emitted by radioactive substances.
Fact: Cherenkov radiation is not a \"radiation\" from a nuclear power plant or an X-ray machine \".
It\'s just a tiny spark emitted by high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, through water or other liquids.
These have nothing to do with radioactive material.
Since neutrinos are not charged, the Cherenkov radiation cannot be given. An unusual fear.
4. Magnet failure: the INO experiment has the world\'s largest magnet to attract neutrinos.
Neutrinos are released during a power outage and can cause disease.
Fact: INO will have the largest magnet in the world, that is, it is no longer a magnet when the power is off.
Also, unlike most other magnets, the magnetic field is limited to the inside of the magnet.
There is almost no magnetic field outside the magnet.
You can walk around the outside with a metal watch or any other metal part without danger.
This contrasts with MRIs and magnets in such machines, which may have permanent magnets inside.
More neutrinos are neutral particles and cannot be attracted by magnets.
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