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by:Newland     2019-09-13
Maybe they are fascinating because they send back amazing images of the Earth: alien landscapes like the red desert of Mars or the Stak crater --
There are spots on the surface of the moon.
Maybe it\'s very similar to the toy truck they used to be when they were young.
Or perhaps because these robotic explorers are our closest connection to the Earth.
The two rover still on the surface of the Earth, Spirit and Opportunity have also achieved amazing success and longevity.
The twin rover, an explorer, photographer and geologists, provides new insights into the composition and history of one of our nearest planetary neighbors, although these two have recently lost some of their features.
On January, the Spirit landed on Mars.
2004, in the caldera of Gusev, a possible former lake hits the caldera in a giant.
21 days later, the opportunity landed at Le mys Hotel, where the deposit indicated that there was water on Mars.
To complete their mission, the rover used the mast
Install a panoramic camera to determine the minerals, textures and structures of the local terrain, as well as the robotic arm containing the miniature camera in the fist for close shootingup images.
These weapons are also able to accommodate a number of scientific instruments, including rock wear tools for removing surfaces, magnets for collecting magnetic dust particles, and three different optical meters for checking rocks, soil and dust particles.
The two Mars vehicles, designed to run for 90 days, are still running after more than 1,900 days of service, but face roadblocks as they continue to be exposed to the Martian environment.
Severe sandstorms limit their access to solar power, forcing the rover to rest longer between maneuvers, and as they move towards retirement, the rover suffers physical setbacks.
In 2006, the spirit loses the function of its right front wheel.
On 2007, the robot arm of Opportunity began to have problems.
At the end of January 2009, Spirit encountered a \"amnesia\" when it failed to comply with the order of the command center of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.
Later in May, there was a problem with mental driving due to the wheel stuck in the soft soil.
However, its cameras and instruments are still working, so NASA continues to fund the rover for about $20 million a year.
In recent years, with the Phoenix lander arriving on Mars on 2008, there is another visitor from Earth on Mars. The Phoenix lander observes the Martian soil and analyzes the Earth\'s atmosphere.
Phoenix completed its mission in November 2008 and is also looking for future rover missions.
The next probe to reach Mars will be NASA\'s Mars Science Laboratory, which was originally scheduled to launch in 2009, but test and hardware issues were delayed as early as 2011, according to NASA.
European Space Agency (ESA)
The ExoMars mission also faced delays, from 2011 to 2016, with some aspects of the mission restricted.
But NASA plans to set up a permanent moon base in 2040, which is only the first step for humans to get on Mars, before that, more Rover will be needed to further study the planet.
Let\'s take a look at some of the key dates in the history of alien probes: 2016: the expected year of the ESA ExoMars mission.
2011: plans to launch a Mars Science Laboratory probe.
It was supposed to launch in 2009. Nov.
11. 2008: The Phoenix lander was unable to maintain communication without power, thus ending the task.
Until December, NASA had no luck and continued to listen to the response.
May 2008: The Phoenix lander broke through 90-
More than a year of Mars mission. Aug.
4,2007: Launch of NASA\'s Phoenix Polar Lander.
October 2006: Canadian robot maker MDA has launched a prototype Mars rover vehicle featuring six metal wheels with \"teeth\" designed to dig alien soil, on-board cameras and slopes
Greater operability of the sensor.
The federal government later refused to fund the project, and two years later, the MDA tried to sell its space business to an American arms manufacturer.
Industry Canada blocked the sale, arguing that the loss of space operations would not bring \"net income\" to Canada \".
March 2004: United StatesS.
The Defense Advanced Research project Agency conducted its first major challenge in which robots had to cross a difficult desert route.
None of the 15 finalists were completed.
The next year, five teams completed 212-
Kilometers.
January 2004: Mars Rover Spirit and Opportunity landed on the red planet, both designed to travel about 100 metres per Mars day.
July 1988: Two ships
David 1 and 2-
Plans to land on a satellite on Mars.
Both ships were lost before completing the mission.
July 4, 1997: The Mars Pathfinder has become the first vehicle to travel through Mars.
Six cars.
Wheeled remote control vehicles can operate on their own using dangerous avoidance systems.
It lasted three times longer than expected, took 550 photos and measured atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind, collecting samples of rocks and soil.
The mission closed on March 10, 1998.
September 3, 1976: Viking 1 lander landed on Mars.
The Viking lander was not a rover, but took the first soil samples and photos from the surface of the Earth.
April 1972: Apollo 16 astronauts tested the performance of their lunar rover, with a maximum speed of 18 kilometers per hour.
July 31, 1971: astronauts on NASA\'s Apollo 15 mission used the first manned lunar probe to explore the area, enabling them to cover a larger area.
November 17, 1970: Russian unmanned lunar rover No. 1 landed on the moon and became the first remote-controlled lunar rover.
Robots landing in another world.
It and the second lunar rover (
Landed on 1973
Explore the surface and take pictures mainly.
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