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u.s. and china nearly came to blows in \'96

by:Newland     2019-09-24
On Thursday, March 7, 1996, in an elegant restaurant overlooking the Potomac River, Defense Secretary William J.
Perry threatened--
As outspoken as they are in contemporary diplomacy. -to go to war. A few hours agoS. Air Force RC-
135 reconnaissance ships and the \"Bunker Hill\" cruiser watched three Chinese.
Nine ballistic missiles launched quickly
Firing on Taiwan from China\'s South China mountains
They landed on the channel near two major ports in Taiwan: first Kaohsiung in the south, then Qilong in the north, and then Kaohsiung in the South.
Liu HUAQIU, a senior national security official, found that,
In the face of Perry, when he booked dinner that night in Department 8 of the State Department, he was waiting for him --
Room in Madison.
In a participant called \"well\"
\"Perry informed Liu that if Chinese weapons attack Taiwan, there will be\" serious consequences\"-
Since the two countries established diplomatic relations, they have not spoken to China and have generally been understood as the norm for military response.
To highlight this, the formula was repeated in turn by Secretary of State Warren Christopher and national security adviser Anthony Lake.
Beijing and Washington are still facing enormous tension and uncertainty over the next two weeks, with the nuclear threat surging.
Current and former officials now say that they are much more worried than they knew at the time, as Christopher wrote in the forthcoming collection of prose, \"A simple misjudgment or mistake can lead to an unexpected war.
But the crisis also marks the beginning.
The next morning after Perry dropped the War Book, Lake escorted Liu Xiang to a borrowed Virginia farm for very unusual informal talks.
The two men, about their peers, have opened up an important new channel of dialogue, replacing the damaged relationship between Christopher and his counterpart, Foreign Minister Qian Qichen.
As President Clinton prepares for his first state visit to China this decade, Asian experts inside and outside the US government pointed out that the March 1996 incident was a turning point ---
From the escalation of the conflict to the \"strategic partnership\" that both governments now express their desire to establish \".
That month marked the lowest point in a relationship that has been poor even by the standards since the 1989 bloodshed in Tiananmen Square.
The lessons learned in the crisis solved the President\'s contradictory mentality of seeking contact with China, and firmly pursued the \"contact\" that brought him to Beijing this month \".
The same lesson is affecting the choices of the agenda, decisions and decisions --
Decision makers on Clinton\'s foreign policy team-
Last fall, he held a summit with President Jiang Zemin in Washington and adjusted the conditions for China\'s satellite launch that are currently plaguing the government during party debates.
David Rothkopf, who had a dispute with Christopher and his assistant deputy commerce minister over China, said the Taiwan crisis was triggered by \"unstable factors\" during the first term, especially in the State Council, the often worn-out policy \"marks\" a lot of confusion about China.
\"By giving Liu an a new channel to the lake, he said,\" sit down and wait.
This is not the way to run one of the key relationships on Earth.
\"Nuclear threat to the United StatesS. ?
The most disturbing factor in the Taiwan Strait Crisis is China\'s two hints of nuclear weapons, one implicit and the other direct.
The Chinese military designated the exercise as the \"961 Strait\", the most provocative exercise ever held by the Taiwan Strait. S.
Analysts believe that China\'s use of nuclear weapons is of special significance. capable M-9 missile. The M-
Nine batteries from China\'s Nuclear Rocket Force-
Second Artillery--
Chinese media reports have drawn attention to the fact.
No one said at the time that one of the missiles almost crossed Taiwan\'s capital, Taipei, and then landed 19 miles off the coast.
Shortly before the missile launch, on January, a former defense official of the Clinton administration reported to Lake a series of disturbing conversations he had in Beijing. Chas. W. Freeman Jr.
In 1972, he served as a translator for President Nixon in Beijing and recently as assistant secretary of defense.
In an argument with senior Chinese military officials over the Taiwan issue-
Since then, he refused to name them ---
He said he heard the implied nuclear threat against the United States.
\"I said if China attacked Taiwan, you would get a military response from the United States,\" Freeman recalled, saying, no, you won\'t.
We have seen you in Somalia, Haiti and Bosnia, and you have no will.
Then, according to Freeman, a senior official added: \"In the 1950 s, you threatened to launch a nuclear strike against China three times, and you can do that because we can\'t fight back. Now we can.
So you won\'t threaten us anymore, because in the end, you care more about Los Angeles than Taipei.
\"Government analysts quickly concluded that Freeman\'s interlocutor was Lt. Gen.
China\'s chief of staff, Xiong Guangkai, and the confidential telegram detailing his remarks have caused disturbing attention in the United States. S.
Pacific Command, Strategic Command, Joint Pentagon staff and Chinese government bureaucracy.
This is a threat for some people.
\"If this is some kind of serious message, we have to make it clear that we will return unopened information,\" Lake recalled in an interview . \".
Friday, March 8 is a cold day in Washington, with nearly 4 inch of fresh snow and zero wind.
That morning, Lake and Liu-
Accompanied by Assistant National Security Council Robert Sutin and State Department officials Winston Lord and Jeff Bard ---
Secretly drove to Fort Lauderdale, Va.
And the country estate of French ambassador Pamela Hariman.
This is an opportunity to eliminate air, but it means facing differences directly.
According to himself and Lord, Lake will certainly find an opportunity that day to present the subject of the Freeman report.
\"I remember leaning forward and telling him that not only were Americans insulted, but the president was insulted, but I was personally insulted by threatening Los Angeles with nuclear weapons, Lake said. \"He denied it.
This is not our policy, he said.
According to several senior policy sources, the first year of Clinton\'s administration saw China largely as a domestic issue.
The manufacturer at that time.
He vowed in the campaign that as long as they shut people up, they would stop \"condoning\" China and rejecting normal trade relations.
In the spring of 1993, he dispatched Lord, assistant secretary of state for East Asian affairs, and Samuel R, deputy national security adviser.
\"Sandy\" Berger will do most-favored-
Two major congressional critics of China\'s crackdown: DelegatesNancy Pelosi (D-Calif. )and Sen. George J. Mitchell (D-Maine).
The result is an executive order requiring China to make \"comprehensive, significant progress\" in human rights or face effective dismissal from the United States. S.
Trade by the spring of 1994.
On February 1994, with the deadline approaching, assistant secretary of state for human rights, John Shatak, met with Wei Jingsheng, China\'s most famous dissident, at a Beijing hotel.
Angry Chinese leaders made a wave of arrests on the eve of Christopher\'s first secretary of state.
On March 12, Christopher sent a telegram to Clinton saying that his Chinese interlocutor was \"rude, melancholy, and sometimes even close to arrogant people \".
Chinese Premier Li Peng gave an ironic speech to the United States on human rights. -
In a personal dig, he cited 1991 riots in Christopher\'s hometown of Los Angeles. -
Nick Song and his national security adviser, Henry Kissinger, opened the door to China, he said, which would be blamed.
According to many people who know him, Christopher has never completely forgotten his anger about the trip.
At the end of his term, as relations pick up in July 1996, Christopher will warn Clinton in a telegram, \"tricky nationalism\" and \"the smug of the Central Kingdom continues to\" make Beijing one of the most difficult protagonists on the world stage \".
In a confidant, his language is more rough when he does not write for history.
Clinton is also contradictory.
Efforts to use trade sanctions to force China to change its behavior ---
Rothkopf calls it \"the equivalent of pointing a gun at your head and threatening to pull the trigger \"---
Apparently failed, he gave up in May 1994.
But he expects China to make a corresponding gesture.
\"I hate our Chinese policy!
According to one participant, Clinton exploded at a White House meeting that summer.
\"I hope I have violated our Chinese policy.
I mean, we give them MFN treatment, we change our business policy, what does it change?
A lot of current and previous policies
Makers says the complex feelings of the president and Christopher us have led to long periods of flow.
Christopher and his closest aides believe that they are constructive in their bilateral relations and meet with Foreign Minister Qian Qichen at international conferences several times a year.
Other sights can be seen from outside Christopher\'s core circle.
\"Christopher doctrine\' basically, I\'m not going to China, but no one else is going,\" said a senior official . \" This reflects a broad range of emotions.
Other government departments are also pushing forward their different agendas.
Ronald H, Minister of Commerce
Brown took the high-
Introduction to China\'s trip in August 1994--
His business delegation includes Bernard Schwartz, president of Loral, who is currently at the center of the satellite dispute. -
Business has developed an initiative in \"big emerging markets\" with a focus on ensuring the safety of Chinese companies.
At the Pentagon, Perry\'s own trip in October consolidated the restoration of military relations.
Freeman\'s visit to November 1993, the first by the government at the assistant ministerial level, said everyone mentioned \"contact\", but the effect reminded him of a Chinese proverb.
\"People sleep in the same bed but have different dreams,\" he said . \"
Taiwan, an island with a population of 21 million, has its own dream of starting to invade Washington ---and Beijing\'s. Twenty-
A year after CHIANG KAI-SHEK\'s death, Taiwan gradually moved towards democracy and independence in order to strive for \"international space.
\"There is no more sensitive issue for Beijing.
S. Officials note that Chinese officials have influenced the drama while bargaining, but Taiwan seems to have expressed real emotion.
\"It\'s more personal,\" Lake said . \"
\"You can hear it from the quality of the sound.
\"Since the 1972 Shanghai Communique,S.
There is only one China, and Taiwan is part of China.
President Carter, who established a formal relationship with Beijing in 1979, downgraded his relationship with Taiwan to \"unofficial.
Then Taiwan president Lee teng-hui
Under the guise of playing golf and vacation, Hui traveled abroad to seek a new diplomatic vision.
In early 1995, he applied for a visa to attend a gathering at Cornell University, his alma mater, and became the first head of the Taiwan government to visit the United States.
From the perspective of the three capitals, followed by a series of diplomaticcrosses.
The Clinton administration told Lee that he could not come, and Christopher assured the money at the April 17 UN meeting that the refusal of a visa was a \"basic policy\" for the government \".
But he also told Qian that the government \"cannot convince Congress that our position is wise \".
\"On May 3, after a $5 million lobbying campaign in Taiwan, the House voted 396 to 0 to ask Li to obtain a visa.
Six days later, the Senate followed by 97-1.
Lake and Christopher worry that if the government does not comply, Congress will amend the Taiwan Relations Act of 1979 to force the government to do so.
The government overturned the original practice in May 22.
\"Christopher\'s credibility with the Chinese is over at that moment,\" says Rothkopf . \".
Meanwhile, Taiwan\'s Washington representative, Benjamin Lu, assured Lord at the State Department that his presidential visit would be kept strictly confidential and low-key. key.
But when Lee came to Cornell, he gave an aggressive political speech using the word \"the Republic of China in Taiwan. -
Curse of Beijing-17 times.
The Lord believes that he has been betrayed and will no longer disagree with Lu Zong.
But the damage has been done.
China withdrew its ambassador, arrested American photographer Wu Hairui and canceled every ongoing discussion between the two governments.
At the State Department, James Steinberg, head of policy planning, warned Christopher to plan for the worst.
He think, China authorities believe the they the George Bush president 1992 Times decided to sell 150 frame F-
16 fighter jets to Taiwan
\"Jim had a stroke,\" recalls a colleague . \"
I remember him sitting in Christopher\'s office saying
Visa Event}
A huge mistake.
In July 21, China began a military response, firing two missiles into an impact zone nearly 100 miles north of Taiwan for three consecutive days.
The Clinton administration did not protest.
According to an official, some officials believe the government should \"let Lee buy Congress\" in the visa vote \".
Christopher traveled to Brunei on August.
He knows where he will see the money.
He brought a letter from Clinton proposing President Jiang Zemin\'s visit to the United States.
Money seems happy.
\"I felt that after the train crash we were all trying to get the car back on track,\" Christopher telegraphed Clinton the next day.
The relationship may have bottomed out.
It turns out to be optimistic.
Washington and Beijing have very different ideas about their first summit since Tiananmen Square.
China hopes to pay a state visit ---
Official welcome on the South Lawn of the White House
Salute, state banquet.
Clinton advisers worried about the domestic response were hesitant.
Deputy Secretary of State tarouf held three meetings with Vice Minister Li Zhaoxing, urging him to \"concentrate\" and reach a low
Key work visits.
\"We think the good thing about doing this is to avoid the storm in Congress,\" Lord said . \".
\"The Chinese did not buy this.
After the talks broke down, Lake and his deputy, Berger, became increasingly dissatisfied with the Administration of China\'s policies.
\"Our relationship is changing,\" Lake said . \"
\"The situation is not very good.
\"The two held a series of brainstorming sessions in the Situation Room at the end of 1995 and early 1996 with nearly 20 outside experts, including Kissinger and Alexander Hague.
Many of them urged the lake to open a second high.
The Beijing level Channel reminds him of Kissinger in 1971 and Brzezinski in 1978. S.
The White House post has made two key breakthroughs in China.
\"Tony has to be the one to do this,\" said Michael oaksenberg, head of the White House china issue at the Carter administration, who argued this in a handwritten memo to Lake.
This is the history of this relationship.
But a close aide recalled that Lake was \"picky about not kissing Christopher \".
\"He was determined to open a channel for Liu, but he wouldn\'t do it without Christopher\'s blessing.
Christopher has been hiding for months.
The tension in 19961996 began in all respects. U. S.
The intelligence service found that China sold a $70,000 ring magnet to Pakistan to enrich uranium into weapons.
The $3 billion retaliatory sanctions will expire before the deadline. S.
CD and laser disc. The annual U. N.
The Human Rights Commission\'s debate in Geneva promised to set off fireworks.
The most important thing is that the Chinese are clearly not ending Taiwan.
Beijing considers the island a rebel province and plans to hold its first direct presidential election in March 23.
According to the Naval Intelligence Agency, China began to transfer missiles, heavy equipment and several brigades. -
About 10,000 soldiers-
February to the coast of Fujian. 4.
This time, the government issued a warning to his rival Li Zhaoxing not to invade.
Tarouf read aloud the Taiwan Relations Act, which directs the White House to \"maintain the ability of the United States to resist any means of force \".
Li became an ambassador to Washington later. He said China\'s answer was simple: \"Taiwan is part of China, the Taiwan issue is China\'s internal affairs, and no foreign power or country should interfere.
\"When the news of the missile launch on March 7 came, the United StatesS.
The intelligence service immediately identified this as a major upgrade.
The drill is scheduled to last until March 25, starting as provocative as this one, and it is not clear where they will stop.
That night, when Lake was preparing to have dinner with Liu at the State Council, he asked Suttinger to study the strongest statement ever made to China about Taiwan.
Suettinger looks back on the history of successive governments suggesting but never saying they would defend the island\'s \"strategic ambiguity.
Lake, Perry and Christopher decide-
And inform the president--
They should go further.
In Madison\'s room, Perry can see the Lincoln Memorial, illuminated by the lights, and he doesn\'t need to pretend to be angry.
When he checked the intelligence report of the shooting mode-
South, then north, then south Taiwan--
He immediately thought of his service in the artillery.
Using artillery, he told Liu that China was clearly \"encircling\" Taiwan, a zeroing technique that could be used before a direct attack.
He called it reckless and unacceptable, and pronounced it carefully, using the word \"serious consequences\" for the first time.
A few days ago, under the pressure of a marked decline in the relationship, Lake finally won the approval of Christopher, for Liu--
The shift returned the China-related initiative to the White House, where it was largely led by Lake\'s successor, Berger.
As two protesters of Li Peng and Jiang Wei, Liu Ke can be very attractive. -
He used to give moon cookies to God as a gift to his wife ---
But he was considered a tough guy.
Realists with good knowledge of English work.
Liu plans to visit his Washington embassy and Lake takes the opportunity to invite him to a one-day retreat.
The disastrous start, when Liu landed, the missile splashed down and seemed to surprise Liu.
Friday morning when they roll in the snow
The lake covers the countryside of Virginia to the Hariman farm and is determined not to waste the chance of a day of conversation.
\"I\'m imitating my Arethra Franklin, R-E-S-P-E-C-
He explained that China\'s future role is very important to us.
For the first time in the Clinton administration, the United States and China talked in detail about their broader interests, some of which were mutual.
They often talk sharply about their disputes.
\"We are going to talk about human rights because we are people like this, but frankly I don\'t have to convince you of democracy because history will solve the problem,\" Lake told Liu Xiang . \".
The living room in Harman was on fire and saw the broad sloping lawn, and the atmosphere occasionally became relaxed.
On the chicken and Caesar salad, Liu quoted the Chinese proverb to express his views.
In response, Lake began to make up the old New England proverb \".
\"This is not a friendly meeting,\" said one participant . \".
\"Not a smile.
It\'s hard to talk in a beautiful room.
The next morning, Saturday, Perry, along with CIA Director John M, asked lake and Christopher.
Deutch, sit with him at the conference table in the Pentagon\'s outer ring office. Gen. John M.
The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, sharicashwi, briefed the panel on highly confidential slides.
Sharicakashili said that China\'s military exercises have just begun the first of four stages ---
Strategic missile strike
Submarines, destroyers and Russiabuilt Su-
27 assault fighters are preparing for the air. and-
Battle of maritime superiority near Dongshan Island and South Australia island.
In the end, amphibious forces gathered on the island of Haitan for raids to ensure a beach on the island, according to the choice of naval intelligence agencies, \"because the terrain there is similar to that of Taiwan.
\"It\'s obviously a huge effort to intimidate, but more is it?
Sharicakashili believes that the exclusion of a comprehensive
Massive invasion of Taiwan.
China lacks maritime resources, especially amphibious vessels.
Military planners think this is a \"million people swimming \".
But nothing else seems to be certain.
Perry advocated firm action to warn China.
The aircraft carrier Independence battle group is in place, 200 miles northeast of Taiwan.
Perry proposed to transfer the second carrier battle group with the Nimitz as the center, which the organization agreed.
Later that day, Clinton approved the region\'s largest naval build-up since the Qemoy and Matsu crises in 1958.
\"It\'s very tense,\" said a senior defense official . \".
\"We haven\'t slept all night for weeks.
We have plans and options for war.
Terrible. \"At Camp H. M.
Mr. Smith of HonoluluJoseph W.
He ordered his America. S.
Pacific Command will set up a crisis action team to coordinate intelligence and airand-
A 24-hour sea operation.
For decades, China\'s public rhetoric has become as militant as anyone has heard, including vowing to \"bury\" Americans if they fight.
After a long time, during the estrangement period behind them, priech will visit Lt. Gen.
Xu xingnian, senior vice chairman of China\'s Central Military Commission.
Xu Hang asked, priech has been thinking during the crisis in the strait?
\"I remember I was hoping to have your phone number,\" priech replied . \".
Next: Partnership.
About the article: President Clinton\'s road to Beijing, he will become the first US president this week. S.
The president\'s 10-year visit to China began in the dark and anxious weeks of the early spring of 1996, when the two powers were surprisingly close to military showdown.
From this crisis, the world\'s most powerful and populous country will decide to pursue a \"strategic partnership \".
When China did its best to prevent Taiwan from officially leaving China for independence, Beijing held two military exercises in the Taiwan Strait in March 1996.
This is the time to influence the first popular election in Taiwan.
The results of independent candidates were lower than expected. 1. Feb.
1996: China began to deploy its troops forward, announcing a restricted area near Taiwan. 2.
March 8, 1996: * two M-
Ship 9 enters the channel outside Kaohsiung port.
March 13: M-There are 9 pieces of land in the area. 3.
March 8, 1996: * 1 M-
On the 9 th, he was fired for landing on the route near Qilong in Taipei. 4.
March 9, 1996: with the US Independence already on the space station, Clinton ordered the second carrier battle group headed by the Nimitz to enter the area. 5.
March 12, 1996: near Dongshan Island and South Australia Island
Fire drills and ground attacks. 6.
March 18-25, 1996: Pingtan, Haitan Island: China invaded Taiwan through air, sea and land exercises, including amphibious assault exercises, helicopter insertion troops, artillery shooting and Army transportation flights. SOURCE: U. S.
Defense Ministry description: China News Agency released a photo of a Chinese naval vessel launching a missile during an exercise in 1996.
Description: Clinton lamented: \"I hate our policy towards China!
The President exploded at one point.
\"I hope I have violated our Chinese policy. I mean . . .
We changed our business policy. What did it change?
\"Description: Peng Liyuan\'s rant: Chinese Premier Li Peng gave an ironic speech to Christopher on the human rights issue of the United States and said that Christopher and President Clinton would close the door to China
Description: China\'s reaction: the United StatesS.
Officials met with Chinese dissident Wei Jingsheng at a Beijing hotel, and angry Chinese leaders punished Warren Christopher with a wave of arrests on the eve of his first secretary of state.
Description: on November 1995, the PLA troops boarded the landing craft to show their strength.
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