radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposition of tio 2 thin films and their perovskite solar cell applications
Layer synthesis of planar heterogeneous perovskite solar cells.
Synthesis of cp layer based on perovskite solar cells involves low
Film quality, high-
Temperature annealing, non
Flexible equipment, large restrictions
The impact of scale production and cp layer on carrier transportation has not yet been fully understood.
In this study, radio frequency magnetic sputtering (RFMS)
The ti02 cp layer was prepared and the thickness was controlled by the deposition time;
Methanol nh3pbi3 film was prepared by evaporation-immersion method (E & I)
Methods, PbI2 film prepared by thermal evaporation technology was immersed in methanol-nh3i solution.
The device has power conversion efficiency (PCE)of 12.
1%, the photovoltaic performance can maintain 1440 of its initial PCE after 77% km/h.
The method developed in this study has the capability to manufacture large active area devices (40u2009×u200940u2009mm2)
Show 4 promising PCE. 8%.
The low temperature flexible device is realized, and the PCE is 8.
9% was obtained on PET/ITO substrate.
These methods can be applied to the needs of thin film solar cells
High quality films reduce manufacturing costs and improve device performance.
RFMS are done by the collision of event Ar ions and targets (
In this process, when some ultra-fast electrons fly to the substrate, they collide with ar atoms under the electric field E.
Ar atoms produce positive ions (Ar)
, Then the Ar ion is experienced as the incident particle in the scattering target and in the collision with the target.
Part of the momentum of events (Ar)
Ions are transported to target atoms that collide with other target atoms to form a cascade process.
During this cascade, some target atoms near the surface with sufficient momentum move from the target to splash to the substrate. It has fast-
Deposition and surface-
The specific Schematic process can be found in.
Process 1: anode was initially corroded with 30% HCl and zinc powder, removing the FTO from the area in contact with the anode.
The substrate was then cleaned with deionized water, acetone and methanol, and finally treated under an oxygen plasma for 10 minutes to remove the last remaining organic residue.
Process 2: The Cp TiO electron transport layer is deposited on glass/FTO or PET/ITO substrate and the electron collection cp layer is obtained through RFMS.
The purity of TiO target is 99.
99%, diameter 52, thickness 5mm.
The distance between the target and the substrate is about 50mm.
Before the deposition, the chamber was evacuated ~ Under the pressure of 4 pax × 10 pa.
RF sputtering process in pure Ar gas (99. 999%).
The gas flow rate of Ar is controlled by mass-
The flow controller and chamber are kept at working pressure 3. 5u2009Pa.
To clean the target surface, a pre-
10 min was introduced before deposition.
The flow rate of pure Ar is fixed at 32 sccm (
Standard cubic centimeters per minute)
The TiO target was splashed with a splash power of 120 kWh W.
The thickness of the film can be adjusted by the sputtering time and monitored by the film
Thickness gauge installed on the base plate of the chamber.
Process 3: PbI film is deposited on TiO cp layer to form FTO/TiO/PbI.
PbI powder is used to prepare PbI films by hot evaporation process (
Evaporation current: 50 u2009;
Evaporation voltage :~ 220 V;
Chamber pressure :~ 8 pa x 10).
Thickness of PbI film detected by the film-
Thickness Gauge in chamber, can be controlled by evaporation time.
Process 4: immerse the FTO/TiO/PbI film in the MAI solution in methanol (10u2009mg/ml)
MAPbI is allowed to be formed by the reaction of PbI and MAI.
The color of the film immediately changed from red to red.
Brown to dark brown indicates the production of MAPbI.
When the reaction is over, transfer the device to a pure acetone solution, rinse off the excess MAI, and then hold it for 5 min at 70 °c for drying on the hot plate.
Process 5: HTM-deposited by rotation-
Coated spiral solution-
In a nitrogen atmosphere, the rotation speed is rpm, the rotation speed is 35 m/s, and 25 min is placed in a closed drying box. The spiro-
Preparation of oMeTAD solution by adding 75 mg screw ring-
Month of OMeTAD, 30 u2009 μ L-tert-
N-Ding and 10m Lin (CFSO)
N-1 ml of P. B. Then stir for 1 hour before spinning-coating.
Process 6: over-heat evaporation in the vacuum chamber deposits an Au electrode with a thickness of 100 nm at the top of the HTM (9u2009×u200910u2009Pa).
Use evaporation shielding to define the area of the device and control the active area of each device to 0. 1u2009cm2 (2u2009×u20095u2009mm), 1u2009cm (5u2009×u200920u2009mm), 4u2009cm (20u2009×u200920u2009mm)and 16u2009cm (40u2009×u200940u2009mm).
All grade chemicals are from Sigma-Aldrich.
TiO aims to buy from China new metal company with 5N purity.
MAI was prepared at home using the methods described in the literature.
In a typical process, methyl amine (CHNH)(13.
5ml in aqueous solution, 40wt wt %)
Reaction with hydrogen iodine acid (HI)(15.
Water of 0 mL, 57 wt %)
In the 250 round bottom flask at 0 °c, stir for 2 hours.
Remove the solvent and excess CHNH using a rotary evaporator to obtain the initial MAI powder.
Precipitation is then washed three times with diethyl ether and then dried in a vacuum oven at 60 °c for 12 hours. Non-
The masked equipment was tested under Class a Solar Simulator (ABET Sun 2000)at AM1.
Lighting conditions of 5 and 100 µm/cm calibrated with reference silicon batteries (
, Using jishili 2400 as a source-
Instruments in environmental conditions, without sealing, are used for measuring 1500 voltage points starting at 1 kWh 1. 5u2009V to -1. 5u2009V.
IPCE is measured in AC mode with bias light using IPCE system (
Photovoltaic measurement company)
A computerized device consisting of quantum efficiency of solar cells-Solar-CellScan100. X-
Ray diffraction (XRD)
It\'s in X-
Ray diffraction (D8-
Premier Hotels in Brook, Germany)
Radiation Using Cu Ka1 (l ¼ 1. 5406 A˚)
The step/time is 0. 02/1u2009s.
Surface Morphology and Cross of membrane
The part of the Perovskite solar cell is characterized by the SIRION field-
Emission scanning electron microscope
The local roughness of MAPbI film was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM;
5500 Agilent Santa Clara, California)
Operate in contact mode.
For the bending test, the cells are bent 300 times (600 times)
On a cylinder with different radius.
In each cycle, the cells are flipped to go through compression and tensile stress and measured every 30 cycles (60u2009times).