new funds fuel magnet power for trains
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One day, can trains floating on invisible magnetic pads transport people from New York City to Los Angeles in an hour?
Even in some less ambitious forms, suspended transportation is just a fantasy?
Although the final answer to this question has not yet appeared, a new $0. 7 billion federal fund has forcefully injected new vitality into the wind of the \"maglev\" sail. During the six-
On last November, the annual life of the maglev demonstration program authorized by Congress and signed by President Bush, scientists, engineers and transportation experts will create a prototype of the commercial maglev train.
The train will not have an organic car, but will be placed above the track by magnetic pads and driven by magnetic waves.
In an article in 1989 \"Scientific American\", New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, a major congressional supporter and sponsor of the federal maglev funding, wrote, the maglev train \"will define the next century like the last century of railway definition, and the car and aircraft define this century.
But others think that maglev is an impossible daydream.
There is no doubt that trains that float on the magnetic \"guide rail\" and are driven by an AC magnetic field can travel at very high speed, high efficiency, with little wear and tear.
The model maglev train already runs in Germany and Japan, the former two years ago creating a speed record of 273 miles per hour on a test track.
Florida planners hope to build a 14-
The mile maglev route from Orlando airport to Disney World in Florida is expected to cost $0. 5 billion.
Japan has already started work on the first link of 300-
A mile of the maglev line between Tokyo and Osaka, the train will follow the line at a speed of 300 miles per hour, taking up 60% of the distance in the tunnel deep underground.
But there is no doubt that the construction of the maglev transportation system will be very expensive. -
Some analysts believe that the cost is higher than that of the United States;
It is estimated that the price per mile range from $8 million to $63 million.
Advertising on February, some papers published by maglev experts at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science disagreed with some of their technical assessments of various maglev systems, but they reached an agreement on one issue: the maglev train will never pay for itself from the passenger\'s income.
Analysts believe that permanent government subsidies will be essential if maglev becomes an important means of transportation. -
Perhaps the increasing demand for diversion of passenger traffic from crowded airports and congested highways makes sense.
The potential profit of the freighter maglev system built with side lines at convenient transfer nodes may provide a major advantage over truck transportation-
More profitable goods than passengers.
The freight may be transported by maglev. sustaining.
On last November, a committee of 19 experts appointed by the National Research Council, an institution of the National Academy of Sciences, conducted a Hybrid review of maglev.
The panel concluded that even today, it is technically feasible to build a train capable of traveling at a speed of 200 miles per hour, but there is no highspeed train --
Wheel or Maglev-
Support can be obtained in the United States or Canada from passenger income alone.
Members of the panel said,
High-speed passenger trains can find a niche within a distance of 150 to 500 miles, a range between the distances most passengers may prefer to travel by plane or car.
The committee added that even higher
High-speed trains may be reasonable, the traditional design of running on wheels like the French TGV should be considered as an alternative to the maglev system, which has been running commercially for more than 20 years
But Senator Moynihan and others believe that Gao-
High-speed transportation belongs to maglev, and Europe and Japan have been ahead of the technology for a long time, which was invented in the United States but never developed.
They said that since the federal government has invested considerable money in the development of maglev trains, the United States has the opportunity to regain its position as a maglev train;
Otherwise, one day, the country may buy less maglev technology abroad.
In 1909, Robert Goddard, a famous American invention of liquid, described the idea of a maglev train. fueled rocket.
The first modern design of the maglev train is the work of the doctor. James R.
Powell, a nuclear engineer, andGordon T.
Than, a particle.
Accelerating physicist at Upton Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Angeles, USAI.
In 1968, their design was patented, which is the basis of the prototype of the Japanese maglev train and has had a huge impact on maglev planning across the country.
The federal government has supported several moderate maglev research projects since 1968, but until 1975, all federal funding for the maglev project was over.
Four months ago, Moynihan\'s bill was passed.
There are two different systems ahead.
This has become a competition between maglev designs.
The first is an induction scheme developed by Transrapid International, which has been extensively tested on the 19 th satellite. 5-
A mile track in elmsland, Germany, near the Dutch border.
A speeding car is wrapped at the top of the elevated \"rail\", equivalent to the track that supports it.
The magnet hanging from each car under the guide rail pulls the car up to the attractive magnet mounted along the surface below the guide rail.
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Another set of matching magnets along the side of the train and adjacent sides of the guide rail keep the train centered so that it does not touch any part of the guide rail;
Therefore, the power of the train propulsion system does not need to be wasted by mechanical friction caused by the rolling of the wheels on the rails.
Once the cross-fast train is pulled up on its magnetic pad, it only needs moderate force to speed up.
Whenever the propulsion magnet of the train passes through the guide rail, each fixed magnet along the guide rail alternately pulls and pushes by switching polarity.
Switch the computer timing controlled by the driver in stages to speed up or slow down the train, or simply keep the train moving.
This propulsion system, known as a synchronous linear motor, generates an AC magnetic field that pushes and pulls the train as if it were a surfboard.
During driving, there are only a few three-between the suspended magnet of the speeding train and the magnet on the guide rail-
Eight points an inch.
This distance is automatically monitored when the train moves, and if it changes, the computer changes the current that supplies the magnet, adjusts their strength, and maintains a constant distance between the train and the guide rail.
Critics say that although the Transrapid prototype has never had an accident, the gap between the train magnet and the guide rail is too small for safety.
In a more advanced \"electric\" system similar to what is being developed in Japan, trains begin to accelerate rolling on traditional wheels.
But as a traveler
The spread of the waves pushed the train to a higher speed, and the magnets on each vehicle generated current in the online circle through a series of metal coils anchored along the track.
These currents, in turn, generate magnetic fields that allow the train to float in the air above the track.
When the speed of the train reaches about 40 miles per hour, the magnetic field is strong enough to lift the train to about 4 inch above the track, and since then, the maglev train has got rid of contact with the ground, speed up quickly.
The electric maglev trains reflect features that are not available in other designs: they can be run using a superconductive magnet.
This magnet is cooled by liquid helium to a temperature of minus 452 degrees Fahrenheit, conductive without loss of resistance, and consumes far less power than conventional magnets.
Questions were raised about the possible health effects of magnetic fields, which are as powerful as magnetic fields in maglev trains, but proponents say they can be shielded.
The Transrapid system does not expose passengers to heights.
In the experimental version of electric propulsion in Japan, the magnetic field is 20 times that of the Earth\'s natural magnetic field, but Dr.
Danby believes that appropriate shielding can reduce the exposure of passengers to the site below the natural level.
In any case, high magnetic fields have not been shown to be harmful to health.
The speed that the maglev train can achieve is mainly limited by air resistance. By running them in a sealed underground tunnel, it can largely eliminate air resistance and remove most of the air from the underground tunnel. Dr. Danby, the co-
The inventor of the electric maglev system told a group of scientists last month that \"in the future, a maglev trip with partially evacuated pipes will eventually allow for an hour from the East Coast to California.
\"In the short term, the design of the maglev train wants to build a concrete tower with an average height of about 40 feet and support the magnetic guide rail. Dr.
Danby and others say that this route can be built along the right for most of their time --of-
The existing interstate.
Although such highways are curved and can accommodate cars traveling at 70 miles an hour, the roads that bypass the curve can be handled much higher --
Speed up maglev traffic by taking a steeper route and using trains that automatically tilt inward on the curve. Dr.
Lawrence Damms, chairman of the Metropolitan Transport Council, Oakland, California
The chairman of the magnetic levitation Advisory Committee of the National Research Council believes that banking and tilting along the steep curve may be an issue for the public to accept the magnetic levitation.
\"If the train is properly placed on high ground, the passenger can remain upright in the seat --
Speed curve, Dr.
In an interview, Dahms said, \"he will still feel the accelerated pressure in his pants and see the ground and Horizon tilt at a very disturbing angle.
It\'s like going to an amusement park.
Trains traveling at speeds of more than 200 miles per hour always take a long radius of curvature-
It\'s too long to coincide with the existing interstate. \"Dr.
Danbi and other maglev train developers do not agree, adding that roads and their support towers are much cheaper to build compared to any existing railway or highway, and also for the environment
He believes passengers will soon get used to the novelty of maglev travel.
A version of this article appears on page C00001, national edition, March 3, 1992, with the title: The new fund powers the train with fuel magnets.