how hurricanes drive immigration to the u.s.
While recovery and reconstruction in Houston and Miami will be a huge effort, it may slow down in poor and smaller countries outside the United StatesS.
There, many people affected by these storms may eventually choose to move to other places.
How many new immigrants can America have? S.
It is expected that in dealing with the hurricane season, which may be the most destructive in the history of the Americas, we will encounter this problem, which has been working for more than a decade on how international migration benefits the country of origin of migrants.
Domestic households, for example, benefit from migrant remittances that finance small businesses and schools and reduce child labor.
Migrants also help families cope with severe weather such as drought and hurricanes through remittances.
In the new study, we turn to a related question: is international migration a way for people to deal with the consequences when they suffer from natural disasters? The answer is not obvious, but our data suggest that they did in some cases.
Understanding how migrants respond to major events in other countries helps policy makers understand the consequences of immigration policies.
Immigration policies affect whether new immigrants will occur in overseas disasters and whether immigrants will occur through legal channels or unlicensed channels.
How do we deal with immigration to the United States that we focus onS.
The world\'s largest destination for international migration.
First, we used the hurricane index we built to assess the severity of a hurricane in a country in a given year.
Activities such as hurricanes and meteorology are the most destructive flood disasters, with about 40% deaths and 38% economic losses caused by all natural disasters over the past two decades.
Moreover, with climate change, hurricanes have become stronger and stronger in the past few decades.
Our Hurricane Index uses satellite data to estimate the risk of a country suffering from a hurricane, rather than relying on more subjective reports from the government or the media.
And then, we analyzedaccess U. S. Census data —
For reasons of secrecy, only researchers with security clearance can access-
From 159 countries in a quartercentury (1980-2004).
We use this data to determine whether the United StatesS.
After the big storm in other countries, the immigration rate has risen in a few years.
We also analyzed the officialS.
Immigration data on entry into the United States under the new law, such as whether immigrants enter the country on a tourist or commercial visa, or have a legal permanent resident status or a \"green card.
\"We found that when the hurricane hit other countries, the United StatesS.
The number of new immigrants has surged.
Notably, the biggest peak in immigration rates comes from countries with a large proportion of the population. S.
To figure out how people got to the United StatesS.
After the hurricane, we conducted an investigation into US officials. S.
We found that the number of new green cards issued by the hurricane increased.
In addition, there is a greater increase in entries in the United StatesS.
Travel and business visas are the main ones.
After the hurricane, what happened to the Immigration Network living in the United StatesS.
This helps pave the way for new immigrants.
Former immigrants are taking advantage of America. S.
Immigration policy to promote family reunification, allowing the United StatesS.
Citizens and permanent residents receive green cards for their relatives.
In addition to providing guarantees for relatives of green cards, previous immigration networks may also provide other types of assistance.
Often, they can help with housing and work, information about new countries and cultural settlements, financial support and psychological support.
Previous immigrants can also help new immigrants learn how to get a tourist or business visa to enter the United States. S.
First of all.
People may come to the United States. S.
On these non-immigrant visas, it is either intended to stay temporarily to avoid the storm or to settle permanently.
Unfortunately, our data is not able to reveal how often those who deal with hurricanes on non-immigrant visas end up staying permanently and whether they do so legally or without a license.
The existing DHS non-immigrant data did not link each non-immigrant entry to each subsequent non-immigrant exit.
Hurricane in Central America and the Caribbean-
Moving to the United StatesS.
It is often hit by hurricanes, causing serious damage.
There are many immigrants from the region in the United States. S.
As a result, people affected by the hurricane often have families who can sponsor them to come to the United States. S.
Or provide other assistance to facilitate immigration.
In 1996, for example, Hurricane Cesar hit Nicaragua.
Food shortages, 42 deaths and $50.
5 million people were injured and 100,000 homeless.
Compared with 1996, green card holders in Nicaragua increased by 1997 in 1995 and 50%.
A large part of these new immigrants are immediate family members of the United States. S. citizens —
Parents, spouses and children.
In contrast, Tropical Cyclone 04B hit Bangladesh on 1988, killing 5,708 people and destroying more than half of the country\'s agricultural harvest.
However, there is no substantial immigration response from Bangladesh to the United States. S.
1988 and 1989.
What explains the difference between the cases of Nicaragua and Bangladesh? Bangladesh is one of the smallest cases in the United States. S.
The immigration network in our sample.
In contrast, the Nicaragua immigration network in the United StatesS.
Relatively large, so more helpful to the family
Fellow citizens seeking immigration to the United StatesS.
The broader implications of the offensive findings highlight the consequences that the United States has not fully emphasized before. S.
Immigration policy: it defines select groups of people around the world who can seek safe havens in the United States. S.
After the disaster in their motherland.
Specifically, family members in the United StatesS.
Citizens and permanent residents are relatively easy to move to the United States. S.
To escape the consequences of disaster
Others who do not have this relationship are not so lucky and have to find other ways to deal with the consequences.
This is an increasingly important consideration in immigration policy, as scientists predict that climate change will mean an increase in the severity of natural disasters.