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how are neodymium magnets produced?

by:Newland     2019-09-27
Nd magnets are rare earth magnets made of nd, iron and boron.
The magnet was first developed by General Motors in 1982.
There are two different processes that can be used to produce nd magnets;
Classic process and rapid solidification.
The classic process of Nd magnet production is done by powder metallurgy or sintering magnet process.
This process requires melting nd, iron and boron into ingots.
Once these ingots have cooled, they become a fine particle.
Particles experience liquid-
Phase sintering resulting in magnetic alignment of particles.
Once the particles are aligned, they are heated and compressed at the same time to generate magnets.
Rapid solidification is by taking Nd-Fe-
B alloy and melt it into a thin belt.
The ribbon produced by the melt spinning process has randomly oriented particles.
Then crush the ribbon into small particles.
The polymer is then added to the particles, which are molded or compressed into the adhesive magnet by injection.
About 50,000 to 55,500 tons of nd magnets are produced each year.
These magnets are used for MRI machines, hard drives, speakers, motors and other applications.
For example, Toyota Prius uses 1 kg nd to produce motors in cars.
Due to the magnetic force of nd magnets, special care is required when handling them.
Even a few centimeters small magnet has the ability to cause physical damage if the skin or other body parts are stuck with the magnet.
If the magnets are close to each other, they may collide with enough force to cause them to fragment.
Magnetic fields are also dangerous for watches, credit card strips, magnetic media and other equipment.
Among the world\'s total production, the sintering nd magnets account for 45,000 to 50,000 tons.
75 in China-
80% of world output.
China is also the manufacturer of most products produced using these magnets.
17-Japan-
25% of the output.
European production 3-
It accounts for 5% of world output every year.
The other 5,500 tons nd magnets produced are bonded.
Bonding magnets have several advantages over sintering magnets.
They have a smaller flux and are more suitable for scientific applications.
It is possible that they are formed into parts that cannot be completed through the classical process.
There is no eddy current loss for this type of magnet.
The use of these magnets in hybrid and electric vehicles, and their importance in many electronic products, means that production will increase in the future.
This will include a classic and rapid solidification process.
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